Prevalence and risk factors for Falls among older adults in a primary care facility in Ghana

Madison Adanusa1, Seth Kofi Pobee2, Ebenezer Zaabaar3, Vukey Mawuko4, Kofi Asiedu5, Solomon Kweku Amuzu2, Wendy Adubofour2, Celestine Bazayeya2, Ethel Enam Yawo Senaya2, Desiree Citsofe Ofori2, Samuel Kyei3*

Falls are a serious problem and are among the leading causes of morbidity, functional dependency, and death in older adults. Falls have become a social and global public health concern due to the current aging population in Africa and across the globe. However, their prevalence and risk factors have received little attention in Africa.
Thus, this study aimed to provide a baseline survey to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors for falls among older adults attending a primary care facility in Cape Coast, Ghana.
Participants (n = 244) were patients aged 60 years and older who visited the University of Cape Coast Hospital. The prevalence of falls identified in this hospital-based study was 40.2%. The following independent variables were found to be statistically significant predictors of risk of falls among the participants when compared with their respective reference categories; age 80 years and above [OR = 3.707, 95% CI = 1.738 – 7.907, p = 0.001], participants who had a history of falls [OR = 2.234, 95% CI = 1.326 – 3.765, p = 0.003], participants with three or more co-morbidities [OR = 16.456, 95% CI = 2.099 – 129.020, p = 0.008] and obesity [OR = 2.211, 95% CI = 1.151 – 4.250, p = 0.017].
The prevalence of falls among older adults is high. Thus, clinicians in the primary care setting should screen for, give fall prevention education, and prescribe appropriate interventions to at-risk patients

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