Original Research: Socio-demographic factors and health status of adults with disability in Enugu Metropolis, Nigeria

Peace N. Ani Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, University of Nigeria, Nsukka

Scholastica N. Eze Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, University of Nigeria, Nsukka

Philomena I. Abugu Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, University of Nigeria, Nsukka

Keywords: Vulnerable, malnutrition, hypertension, diabetes, zinc deficiency, anaemia, obesity, dyslipidemia, gender difference, Nigeria


Disability is a major determinant of impaired health and nutritional status. This study aims to assess the health and nutritional status of adults with disability and their relationship with socio-demographic factors.
A descriptive cross-sectional study of 323 adults with disability in support-centers/schools of disability in Enugu Metropolis, Nigeria was conducted. The participants’ socio-demographic factors, behavioural characteristics and 24-hour dietary recall were recorded. Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements of height, weight, waist and hip circumference were obtained. The height and weight measurements of non-ambulatory participants were estimated from knee height and mid-arm circumference. Biochemical analyses of blood samples were also performed. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the effect of socio-demographic factors on health and nutritional status.
The participants consisted of females (59.3%) within the age of 20 to 30 years (59.1%). The major area of difficulty was in physical mobility (51.1%) and this occurred mostly in females (26.9%). The participants’ mean daily intakes of calorie, protein and fat were below the recommended dietary allowances. The participants were overweight (49.2%), obese (4.6%), hypertensive (29.7%) and diabetic (12.1%). Dyslipidemia (81.8%), anemia (63.6%) and zinc deficiency (51.1%) were highly prevalent among the study group. Gender difference was observed in alcohol consumption (p=0.000), smoking habit (p=0.001), waist circumference (WC)(p=0.000), waisthip-ratio (WHR) (p=0.000), triglyceride (p=0.026) and haemoglobin concentration (p=0.007). Being boarder was a positive predictor of overweight/obesity (OR= 2.974, 95% CI=1.449–6.104), abnormal WHR (OR=2.893, 95% CI = 1.073–7.801) and hypertension (OR=8.381, 95% CI=1.598–13.959). Female gender was associated with abnormal WC (OR=7.219, 95% CI=3.116–14.228) and WHR (OR=3.590, 95% CI=2.095–6.150) whereas older age-group was associated with overweight/obesity (OR=1.908, 95% CI=1.137–
3.202). Being employed was a negative predictor of hypertension.
Overweight/obesity, anemia, zinc deficiency and dyslipidemia were highly prevalent among persons living with disability in Enugu Metropolis.

Journal Identifiers

eISSN: 1995-7262
print ISSN: 1995-7262

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